Annotated Bibliography #11

Summary

This article looked at Armenia. It says countries of the former Soviet Union are different from America’s in society, culture, and educational system. This could be a large reason why there is a big amount of women in computer science in Armenia. Throughout all of the 1980’s and 1990’s in Armenia, the percentage of women in computer science never fell below 75%, even though Armenia traditionally is a male-dominating culture.

The study looks to compare and contrast what attracts or doesn’t attract women to computer science in America or former Soviet Union countries. There were three different surveys done with 23 questions for three different groups of people. it included people majoring in computer science, non-computer science majors, and graduate professionals in other fields.

The survey was 538 individuals (240 males and 226 females). 85 people were also interviewed. Looking at Armenia, 31% of women consider computer science recently. The author says that factors leading to the under-representation of women in computing is because CS is male dominated, girls get intimidated, and feel isolated. Further, there aren’t role models for young women, and women don’t get the same respect as men, not the same opportunity, or success.

In Armenia surveys show said that men are only bothered if there is a low number of women, not women. There aren’t role models in Armenia also. Unequal treatment for women happens in computer science, and others fields. Though, when both young Armenian men and women choose the CS major, they have the same mindset (motivation, goals, and influences). Young people are very mature in planning their futures. In Armenia, computer science is more considered math than engineering. Male dominating fields aren’t intimidating to women, and not having role models is not a concern.

Analysis

I learned from this source that even in Europe, a Western country like Armenia can have women in large numbers studying computer science. This is largely because Russia and former Soviet Union countries are different from the rest of European countries, more so. What was new was seeing another country that has good amount of women studying computer science.

The source is highly credible because it is peer-reviewed and scholarly. The article raises questions of what determines women to participate in computer science, and is society/culture really a large factor. If not that, then what are the factors to determine women in computer science.

Reflection

The article connected to other articles in that it looked at women in computing. It surveyed both men and women, like most articles. The study took place in Armenia, so this was a different perspective. This helps to understand that society and culture could be huge factors in determining whether women go into computer science. Countries that are westernized are less likely to have women, I would hypothesize, and this could fit the mold since Armenia’s culture, like many former Soviet Union countries, is different than the rest of Europe’s.

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One of the authors of this article (Hasmik Gharibyan):

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Works Cited

Gharibyan, Hasmik, and Stephan Gunsaulus. “Gender Gap in Computer Science Does
Not Exist in One Former Soviet Republic: Results of a Study.” ACM 38.3 (2006): 222-26. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

Annotated Bibliography #10

Summary

The paper investigates on how and why computer science is dominated by women in Malaysia. The author aims to open up more culturally situated analyses of gendering of technology or technology of gendering. He critiques analytical asymmetry in process of co-production in gender and technology studies. He critiques the western bias, advocating more context sensitivity and focus on cultural embeddedness of gender and technology relations.

Mellström critiques to pay more attention to spatial practices and body politics in regard to race, class, and gender. He also critiques the western positional notions of gender configuration that opens up for more fluid constructions of gender identity. The study wants to look at relational and positional definitions of femininity and masculinity. He says there’s a western bias of gender and technology studies, and argues for cross-cultural work and intersectional understandings.

The author did a 150 student questionnaire survey. It included 111 women, and 39 men. The women comprised of 68 Malays, 38 Chinese, and five Indians. For the men, there were 20 Malays, 17 Chinese, and two Indians. The questionnaire focused on gender, ethnicity, family structure, educational choice, and career plans. The author also noticed that Malay women are studying engineering, science, and management fields in large numbers. While, the men are studying for government positions and studying in fields like Bahasa Malaysia, Islamic Studies, and Social Sciences.

Analysis

I learned from this source that there is at least one country where women are more represented in computer fields than men: Malaysia. This leads me to hypothesize that America and possibly Western countries are the ones where there is the under-representation of women in computing. What was new was seeing a country that ha women dominating in studying and working in computer fields.

The source is very credible, as it is peer-reviewed and scholarly. The article does raise new questions, as to why there is such an under-representation in America, while it is the opposite in Malaysia. This would lead me to hypothesize that Western cultural and societal factors come into play. Comparing and contrasting studies and doing more research will help to answer these questions.

Reflection

The article connects to other articles I’ve read by focusing on women in computing. Both men and women were surveyed, which is typical in the articles I’ve researched. One huge difference, though, is that this study is done not only outside of America, but not in a Western country like Europe. The article focuses on the domination of women in computing, while most articles focus on why there is an under representation of women in the computing field.

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A picture of the author: Ulf Mellström

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Works Cited

Mellström, Ulf. “The Intersection of Gender, Race, and Cultural
Boundaries, or Why Is Computer Science in Malaysia Dominated by Women?” Social Studies of Science 39.6 (2009): 885-907. Sage Publications, Ltd. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.

Annotated Bibliography #9

Summary

This article looks at whether the outfit of a woman leads to a stereotype of women’s lower computer skills. The study is done in Germany, it includes 162 participants (105 women, 57 men). It evaluated the same women competing for an IT-related student job.

The only difference in the women was their outfit: neutral versus feminine. It was found that the feminine outfit had higher ratings of femininity but lower ratings of computer skills. Also, unfavorable attributions of success and/or failure in computer tasks.

There was found to be a high attribution of success to luck and failure to lack of skills. The women wearing the feminine outfit was rated to be less intelligent, less competent, and less likeable. And, males rated themselves to have higher computer skills than females.

Analysis

I learned from this source that in Europe, specifically Germany at the least, the issue of under representation of women in computing is present also. The issue is not just exclusive to the United States. What was new was seeing to how high of a degree a women’s clothing can affect others’ perspective of her computer skills. Seeing that this under-representation is in Germany, makes me hypothesize that it’s prevalent in most of the Western society.

This source is highly credible as it a peer-reviewed scholarly journal article. It is co-authored by three researchers. The article does raise new questions, as mentioned, about how prevalent is the under representation of women in computing worldwide, at least from my perspective, since most of my research has been focused on America. It raises the question of to what degree does outward appearance stereotype and affect women in computing in a negative manner. More research will need to be done, and more studies to conclusively prove that feminine outfits hinder women’s appearance of ability in computers.

Reflection

The article connects to other articles in that it focuses on why a specific reason as to why women are underrepresented in computing fields. The focus is on outfits. The study questions both men and women, which a good amount of articles also do. This article has a specific focus, which is different than some others, that are more general. Another difference is that the study is done in Germany. A lot of my articles are based in America. This article helps begin a foundation to why this under representation occurs.

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Works Cited

Fleischmann, Alexandra, Monika Sieverding, Ulrike Hespenheide,

Miriam Weib, and Sabine Koch. “See Feminine Think Incompetent? The Effects of a Feminine Outfit on the Evaluation of Women’s Computer Competence.” Computers & Education 95 (2016): 63-74. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

Annotated Bibliography #8

Summary

This article examines reasons behind low enrollment of women in computer science and computer engineering education. It’s based on 150 in-depth interviews of female and male undergraduates in the major. The interviews include whites, african-americans, hispanics, asian-americans, and native americans.

The study found bias in early socialization and anxiety toward technology as being two reasons. There was significant gender and ethnic differences in student responses on why enrollment for women is so low. The students’ statements suggest that society, including family members, have higher expectation for boys than girls. Also, children are taught by teachers with a bias that girls are good in fields not technology related, why boys are.

Most of the female students interviewed said that they found anxiety in technical fields either due to lack of exposure/use of computers or because of an outcome of gendered socialization. There was significant gender and ethnic differences on students’ perception about why women’s representation is so low.

Female students point to gendered socialization and technical anxiety. White students, more so, blamed only gendered socialization. Asian Americans lean towards role played by technical anxiety. There were ethnic differences in women, but not men. Native American females feel some other reason is to blame other than gendered socialization or technical anxiety. There was also a divide between whites and african-americans.

The author, Varma says that the study suggests that teachers in elementary, middle, and high school need to improve their style of teaching to not be so stereotypical in focusing on math and science for boys. Another suggestion is that girls’ math and programming skills should be developed and/or improved by the time they reach university. Also, having user-friendly female classrooms can be helpful also.

Analysis

I learned from this source that there are not only gender differences related to studying women’s low representation in computing, but also ethnic differences. This article reiterates a lot of what I’ve studied in other articles like beating stereotypes, emphasizing teacher influence, and also female friendly classrooms.

What was new was seeing that different ethnic groups have differences in their opinions. Also seeing that the ethnic differences were only in females, and not male. This article is very credible because it is scholarly, and peer reviewed in a well-known published journal. This article raises new questions in looking at ethnic differences, which could lead to better results and improvement of women in computing fields.

Reflection

The article connects to other articles I’ve read in that it reiterates many of the ideas that stereotyping and needing to improve girls’ skills early on can help reduce the under representation of women. Having a user-friendly classroom for females can be useful also, which is emphasized in another article.

This article focused not only both women and men’s opinions, but also on different ethnicities. The approach is very specific and could prove to be very helpful in future research. Other articles don’t look at ethnicity, or even male responses, but this looks at both of the factors and compares and contrasts them.

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5 hypotheses from article:

(1) H1: Female and male students will vary significantly in their
perception on under-representation of women in CS/CE.
(2) H2: Students belonging to different ethnic groups will vary
significantly in their perception on under-representation of women
in CS/CE.
(3) H3: Female students belonging to different ethnic groups will vary
significantly in their perception on under-representation of women
in CS/CE.
(4) H4: Male students belonging to different ethnic groups will vary
significantly in their perception on under-representation of women
in CS/CE.
(5) H5: Female and male students belonging to different ethnic groups
will vary significantly in their perception on under-representation
of women in CS/CE.

Works Cited

Roli Varma (2010) Why so few women enroll in computing? Gender

and ethnic differences in students’ perception, Computer Science Education, 20:4, 301-316

 

 

Annotated Bibliography #7

Summary

Ashcraft says that a lot of programs looking at under representation of  women in technology take a narrow view of their purpose, ignoring important factors that shape identities and education/career choices. The paper focuses on the issue of sexuality. The author explains how sexuality  discourses are shaping a diverse range of girls’ experiences with technology, their perception of themselves and their ultimate choices in their educational and professional life.

The author emphasizes sexuality in technology education. She says there a connection between youth sexuality and technology. Also, says that sexuality influences two barriers to girls’ and women’s participation in computing: by stereotypes and work-life conflicts in technology workplaces.

Ashcraft argues that progressive sexuality education and increasing acceptance of and funding for this education will  lead to increasing effectiveness of computing programs.

Analysis

I learned from this source that girls’ understanding and awareness of sexuality could increase more participation of women in computing. Increasing education on sexuality in schools can also help. What was new to be is that this education can help us understand why women are underrepresented from factors like stereotyping.

This article is very credible because it is written by a well-known researcher, and is peer-reviewed and scholarly. The article is published in a well-known journal. The article raises new questions related to how we as a community should approach increasing participation of women in technology. Ashcraft argues that a lot of the research being done isn’t focused on what’s important, and that we need to focus more sexuality.

Reflection

The article connects to other articles I’ve read in that it is focused on understanding women’s under representation in computing, and finding solutions. This article uses research mostly and interviews for its conclusions. A lot of other articles use surveys and studies. This article also focuses solely on women, while other articles look at men and women. Ashcraft essentially discredits many other researchers in that saying they aren’t focused on the right aspects, but does conclude that there could be other factors other sexuality.

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Catherine Ashcraft, author of this article

Catherine Ashcraft

Works Cited

Catherine Ashcraft (2015) Technology and sexuality –

what’s the connection? Addressing youth sexualities in efforts to increase girls’
participation in computing, Learning, Media and Technology, 40:4, 437-457

 

 

Annotated Bibliography #6

Summary

The authors for this article argue that looking at gender difference for participation of women in computing, doesn’t explain women’s declining interest. They focus on culture. They show the significance of cultural factors by describing a case study examining attitudes of Computer Science majors at Carnegie Mellon University.

They found no difference in attitude between genders. They describe culture as belonging to everyone being part of our everyday experiences and being “made and remade.” The authors use this term for culture defined as referring to the complex and broad set of relationships, values, attitudes, and behaviors binding a specific community ‘consciously’ and ‘unconsciously.’

The authors argue that gender is often constructed differently in different cultures, so taking a cultural approach allows us to see more clearly and convincingly that many characteristics considered natural to men and women are actually produced in specific cultures. Cultural factors like faculty approachability, environment, social fit, academic fit, and ingredients for success were looked at.

They found that inclusive culture still exists, and women-CS fit’s been sustained without accommodating presumed gender differences. They argue that attitudes toward CS aren’t deeply rooted, nor specific to one gender. They found that it’s determined by factors within culture and the environment.

Analysis

What I learned from the source opposes what I saw in most articles. Most articles say that gender is a difference, instead of cultural factors explaining the lack of women in computer science. Seeing this study shows a different viewpoint that it could just be society that is causing the lack of women in technology.

The source is very credible as it is a peer-reviewed scholarly article from a well-published journal. The article does raise new questions in looking at different factors such as the environment and culture in the society, instead of gender differences. If we look at different things then that could better explain the gap in women in computer science fields.

Reflection

This article connected to other articles I’ve read by focusing on women’s lack of studying in computer science fields. Both men and women were surveyed, but the focus this time was just on women to show how gender difference is not a factor, but rather cultural factors. This article has an opposing view to many of the articles I’ve read. A lot of articles show that women react to computer science differently, and we should adjust, but this article focuses on societal factors to explain the difference.

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Graph from the study:

Untitled

“Fig.3 Percentage response of all students cohort by gender to multi-choice statement: ‘Overall, I feel like I fit in socially'”

Works Cited

Frieze, Carol, Jeria L. Quesenberry, Elizabeth Kemp, and Anthony Velázquez. “Diversity or

Difference? New Research Supports the Case for a Cultural Perspective on Women in Computing.” Journal of Science Education and Technology 21.4 (2012): 423-39. Springer. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.

Annotated Bibliography #5

Summary

This paper examines undergraduates’ stereotypes of people in computer science, and whether the media can change the stereotypes to have more women. Two studies were done. Women who read that computer science no longer fit the stereotypes, express more interest than those who read otherwise. A stereotype in computer science that’s mentioned is that computer scientists are technology-oriented, with strong interests in programming and electronics. The perception is that they are less likely to help others compared to people with different careers.

This stereotype was held by both male and female students. The stereotype may cause women to express less interest in the field than men. A second stereotype: computer scientists are so focused on technology that they’re obsessed with computers and programming, to the exclusion of others. This deters more women than men. Another stereotype is that computer scientists lack interpersonal skills and are socially awkward.

The evidence suggests that male undergrads are more likely to endorse this stereotype than females, although women may be deterred by it. The computer ‘nerd’ or ‘geek’ stereotype discourages women from pursuing computer science. The researchers also argue that these stereotypes aren’t compatible with characteristics women are expected and may wish to possess, like working with and helping others.

Analysis

I learned that males are more likely to endorse the computer science stereotype, and that females see the stereotype as negative. What was new to me was that women could show less interest in computer science because of stereotypes. The source is very credible, it is a scholarly article. The article raises new questions on how to address the stereotypes in computer science, and how to prevent them so more women can be included.

Reflection

The article connects to other articles I’ve read in that it discusses women’s underrepresentation in computer science and stereotypes that are seen in computer science. Both of the topics I am researching. The researchers did two studies that included women.

Visual

Graph from the study:

graph

Works Cited

Cheryan, Sapna, Victoria C. C. Plaut, Caitlin Handron, and Lauren Hudson. “The

Stereotypical Computer Scientist: Gendered Media Representations as a Barrier to Inclusion for Women.” Springer Science Business Media New York (2013): 58-71. Web. Feb.-Mar. 2016

Annotated Bibliography #4

Summary

This paper examines whether small exposure to a stereotypical computer science role model has a lasting influence on women’s interest for computer science. One hundred undergraduate women, non-computer science majors met a male or female peer role model who fit computer science stereotypes. Or they met a role model with no stereotypes. The interaction lasted two minutes.

Exposure to the stereotypical role model had an immediate and negative effects on women’s interest in computer science. This was because of women’s reduced sense of belonging. Whether the role model was male or female made no effect. The researchers hypothesized that women’s interest in computer science would be compromised by exposure to a stereotypical role model. It would lead to a lower sense of belonging. They were right in their hypothesis. Nonstereotypical male role models were more effective in increasing women’s interest than female role models who fit the stereotype.

The researchers found that sharing a unique similarity or emphasizing values helps women into the field. They also found that gender of a role model doesn’t only matter, but whether a potential role model conveys to women a sense of belonging in the field.

Analysis

I learned from the source that a role model can have a huge influence on creating interest for women in computer science. It also reiterated that stereotypical computer science people are negative to women because the women end up not feeling a sense of belonging. What was new to me was that a nonstereotypical male role model can have more influence than a stereotypical female role model.

The source is very credible, it is a scholarly article. The article does raise new questions about how to include role models more in getting women to study computer science. It also repeats the notion that stereotypes of computer science people are negative, and that we should find ways to change the culture or limit the stereotypes of computer science.

Reflection

The article connected to others I’ve read in that it encompasses what I am researching. The vocal point of the research is to look at the under representation of women in computer science. This particular study focused only on women, which is preferable for my research since that’s my focus. The researchers look at the issue, conduct studies, find conclusions to help stop the gender gap.

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Example of a role model in Computer Science

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Works Cited

Cheryan, Sapna, Benjamin J. Drury, and Marissa Vichayapai.

“Enduring Influence of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models on Women’s Academic Aspirations.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 37.I (2012): 72-79. Sage Publications. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

Picture of Bill Gates. Digital image. Forbes. Web. 1 Mar. 2016.

 

Annotated Bibliography #3

Summary

The authors of this paper conducted three experiments examining if the design of virtual learning environments influences undergraduates’ enrollment intentions and anticipated success in introductory computer science classes. The work was specifically done on whether the design of 3-D VLEs influence gender disparities in computer science.They found that changing the design of a virtual classroom from one that portrays current computer science stereotypes to one that doesn’t, significantly increases women’s interest and potential success in computer science.

Men’s interest and anticipated success wasn’t changed from environmental changes. Statistical analysis showed that the stereotypical virtual classroom brought on a lower sense of belonging for women. There was a lack of “ambient belonging” in the stereotypical room. The researchers want to study why objects stereotypically involved with computer science steer women away. They argue that re-designing VLEs may help underrepresentation of women in computer science. The researchers mentioned a potential limitation of the study was that the stereotypical room was presented first to the participants in the experiment.

Analysis

I learned from this source that an environment can have a significant influence on women pursuing computer science. The researchers looked at ‘virtual learning environments’ that in turn depict how people feel in actual classroom, etc. Having a stereotypical computer science environment has a negative influence on women, making them feel less belonged and thus strays them away from the field. What was new to me was the idea of virtual learning environments that some universities use. Online classes from what I’ve seem, don’t include this. It’s surprising that things like posters can influence people to the point where they won’t look go into a computer-related degree. Also, the men’s opinions were unchanged, regardless of the varying classrooms.

The source is very credible. It’s a scholarly article. The article does raise new questions for exploring more on why women are underrepresented in computer science. The researchers want to look more at how stereotypical objects influence women’s perspective, and argue that re-designing virtual learning environments can help with the gender disparity.

Reflection

This article connected to other articles I’ve read by focusing on gender differences in computer science, specifically why women are underrepresented. This article looked at both men and women, like most articles.

Visual

From the research paper:

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The left picture represents a stereotypical classroom with science fiction items, video games, etc. The picture on the right represents a non-stereotypical classroom with nature posters, water bottles, etc.

Works Cited

Cheryan, Sapna, Andrew N. Meltzoff, and Saenam Kim. “Classrooms

Matter: The Design of Virtual Classrooms Influences Gender Disparities in Computer Science Classes.” Computers & Education 57 (2011): 1825-835. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

 

Annotated Bibliography #2

Summary

The study looks at why women are underrepresented in Computer Science. Sylvia Beyer got data from 1,319 American, first-year college students that indicated that there exists gender differences in computer self-efficacy, stereotypes, interests, values, interpersonal orientation, and personalities. A student having a positive experience in their first Computer Science was more likely to take another one. Beyer suggests that this underrepresentation is not inevitable. To make changes, we need a clear understanding of the reasons they are not as high in numbers. She suggests social psychological variables to be looked at. She also saw that having a terrific instructor influences students to continue with CS also.

Analysis

I learned from this source the variables that can influence whether a student pursues computer science. A student’s first CS course is vital in their possible future in the field. Also, I saw the strong influence of instructors for students. The different factors that Beyer says exists in influencing success in a CS course was new and interesting to see. This source is from a published journal, and heavily credible. This article raises many new questions on factors that influence students, including female students in pursuing a career or even taking CS courses.

Reflection

This article looks directly at what my focus is on: women’s underrepresentation in computer science. It uses data and analyzes the findings, to come up with solutions that can help female students pursue Computer Science degrees. The article focuses on men also, but a lot of the focus is on women, as the title proclaims. This article is a lot more specific than other articles I’ve read, which is better for my research.

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Portion of survey questions from the article:

13. What is the average starting salary of a computer scientist with a BS? $ _______ per year
14. What is the average number of hours worked by a computer scientist each week?_____ hours
15. What percentage of computer scientists are women? ___%
16. What is the average GPA of a Computer Science major here? (on a 4-point scale) ____
17.Since coming here, have you taken any Computer Science courses?
___ Yes Please skip to question 18.
___ No Why didn’t you take any Computer Science courses? (Check all that apply.)
___ I never had any interest in Computer Science.
___ Computer Science courses are very difficult.
___ Computer Science courses are very boring.
___ I don’t think I would learn anything useful in a Computer Science course.
___ I don’t think I would do very well in a Computer Science course.
___ Computer Science courses are not offered at times that fit my schedule.
___ I don’t think I would fit in with the other Computer Science students.
___ Computer Science professors are not very approachable.
___ I am not required to take any Computer Science classes.
___ I was not aware that Computer Science courses were available.
___ I need to fulfill my other (non-Computer Science) course requirements.
___ Other. Please specify _______________
Now skip to question 19.
18. Which Computer Science course(s) are you currently taking? List up to 3 classes on the lines
provided:
Computer Science class #1: _______________
Computer Science class #2: _______________
Computer Science class #3: _______________

Works Cited

Sylvia Beyer (2014) Why are women underrepresented in Computer

Science? Gender differences in stereotypes, self-efficacy, values, and interests and predictors
of future CS course-taking and grades, Computer Science Education, 24:2-3, 153-192, DOI:
10.1080/08993408.2014.963363