Category Archives: Uncategorized

Women’s Underrepresentation in Computer Science



Reflective letter


To: Connie Douglas

From: Jawad Ahmed

Subject: Reflective letter

Date: May 3, 2016

Course name/section: ENGL-2116-090

Assignment: Writing portfolio


This portfolio has really helped improve my writing. I see the errors I made with writing, with spelling, grammar, tenses, format, etc. A lot of little things were the mistakes; things I know now, or had known and had forgotten. The letter of application had a lot of errors related to capitalization and format. Adjusting these errors will be especially helpful, as I will always use cover letters in my professional life.

The personal memo had a lot of errors that related to grammar, especially using a preposition to end a sentence: which is a recurring error I made in papers. Other errors I made were using slang unintentionally, using an abbreviation for a word not used before, and not writing out numbers lower than a 100. A grammar error that I had multiple times throughout my papers was using fragment sentences or having bad word choice.

In my memos and letter, a good majority of the errors came from using wrong formatting and using contractions. Using contractions was another error that I had throughout my papers all semester. I was also told to get into more specifics on a memo. I have a better understanding now of how to write a letter and memo in a professional setting.

The instructions paper had various grammar errors, but a needed change was the need to have better visuals. I used cartoon pictures of boxes, and instead should’ve used real pictures of boxes. I made the adjustment, and now the pictures depicted are more realistic and user-friendly. A person reading these instructions would be able to have a clearer idea of how to package boxes.

In my research report, the huge adjustment I had to make was that I used “I,” which is informal writing. This is helpful to know for future reference when I am writing other papers. Another mistake I made was not having the right format for articles. I used quotation marks instead of italics, which were supposed to be used. This report had various grammar mistakes. It was also seen that the paper was almost like a summary of my blogs. At the end, the works cited was also not done in the right format; it should’ve been in alphabetical order for MLA format. Other assignments in the writing portfolio include the second ted talk, objectives for technical communication, and chapter 1 exercise #1.

The papers in this class have made me see that I should pay closer attention to details and format. A lot of the grammar mistakes and format errors could’ve been seen if I had looked through my paper multiple times, with close detail. I will learn from all my mishaps and use this to improve my writing in the future. I can already say my writing has improved from the beginning of the semester to now.

Ted talk #2

“Forget university? 4 steps to design your own education”

-Till H. Grob. TEDxKlagenfurt.

Till H. Gross recommends that you don’t just focus on your classes and grades. He says to make sure your degree is completed, but also educate yourself. Reading books is very important he emphasizes. He has four main points: 1. Develop skill, 2. Learn from the best, 3. Learning is more important than money, and 4. Hustle comes first.

Gross says to do deep work, not just reading books, but summarizing them and getting the main points. He suggests to study with your peers, and practice the skills if possible. He says to adapt the work ethic and work habits of the best. Ask them to mentor you, but bring something to the table that can benefit them. This would allow you to learn from them also. Get accustomed to “no” and expect it to be rough, but it will pay off. Till signifies real-life experience. He says it’s okay to work for free, then work your way up the ladder. He says all this effort can lead to a career that you are passionate about. 

I would say that this is definitely a good idea, in fact a terrific idea. I want to implement a similar plan to success. I’ve had many other mentors tell me to take a similar path. As college students we are told that we can’t just expect to have a job after graduating, we should have internships, gain experience, do projects, and network. The “learn from the best” is best equated to networking and finding mentors. ‘Developing skills’ can be gained from projects, etc. ‘Learning is more important than money’ can best be referring to un-paid internships. A lot of people follow the path of doing projects, getting internships, working for free, developing their skills, networking, finding mentors, then finally having success.

My idea of a good idea is something that leads to success. It is definitely proven that this way leads to success. I think this method is universal. It can, for the most part, work for all fields. There is always some skill that you must develop, always a mentor that can help you, and be put in a position where you will have to take an un-paid internship. This method works for the computer science field for example.

Chapter 1 Exercise #1

DATE: May 3, 2016

TO: Connie Douglas

FROM: Jawad Ahmed

SUBJECT: Kinds of Writing Found on the NIH Website

The National Institutes of Health or the NIH focuses on issues pertaining to health. Their motto is “turning discovery into health.”


There are a lot of reports, as new diseases are found, and cures are discovered. This organization and its website are a branch under the Department of Health and Human Services, so there is a vast amount of health related writing that is accessible. The various articles and publications on health relay information for the general public.



The NIH contains writing that relates to health. There is a lot of research done, so there are a lot of reports, publications, and articles being written. The writing is displayed in a way to display information, since the general public reads the writing and can learn and take advantage of the work the NIH is doing.

Objectives for Technical Communication

  1. We need the information for the date of the meeting as soon as possible.
  2. The artillery machinery will replace a flawed wood chip, piece of equipment in our department.
  3. Failure to purchase this textbook for class will have a negative impact.
  4. Weather problems in the Charlotte area resulted in damage to the computer systems.
  5. The most recent occurrences in management changes were caused by insufficient personnel.


  1. The Accounting Department must implement this procedure.
  2. Attendees derived twofold benefits from the conference.

3.The training supervisor demonstrated and explained the information in great detail.

  1. Representatives from Allied held discussion and supplied analytical equipment for automatic upgrades.
  2. The symposium on polymerization also attended.


  • We use electronics to process freight and documentation. We’re in the process of having terminals placed in the export department of some of our major customers around the country so that they may keep track of all the shipments within our system. I would like to propose a similar tracking mechanism for your company. We could handle all of your export traffic from your locations. You’ll be able to generate an export invoice. All in all, your export operations would achieve greater efficiency.
  1. Tell
  2. See
  3. Confirm
  4. Help
  5. Figure
  6. Aim
  7. Trial
  8. Hint
  9. First
  10. Soon


  1. The progress reports should be completed by the fifteenth of each month.
  2. Can you answer a few questions about your proposal.
  3. I received your e-mail requesting an increase in pay, and feel it’s not merited at this time because you’ve worked here only one month.
  4. I made an investigation of your residence twice and saw that your sump pump might result in damage to your neighbor’s adjacent property. You should take action, before you are potentially sued.
  5. If you have any questions, feel free to contact me via phone.


Research Report


The researcher will be looking at women in technology, focusing on women in computer science. Specifically, the under representation of women in universities studying this field will be looked at. The researcher will look at numbers, statistics, and solutions to why there is such a discrepancy. The researcher will look at the ratio of men in computer science compared to women, and even look outside of the United States and see if there are countries where the ratio isn’t as un-proportial, or proportioned at all. Various techniques and findings people have and suggest are to be seen, to help more women study computer science.



In the article, Community College Men and Women: A Test of Three Widely Held Beliefs About Who Pursues Computer Science, the authors look at how to increase the number of computer and information sciences at universities, particularly women. The researchers conducted a longitudinal study that collected from 741 women and men from fifteen different community college in California who were enrolled in introductory programming classes. The results for men showed the importance of preparation and interaction with professors. For women, it was the significance of motivational, relation, and behavioral factors. A specific factor: peer support and expectations for success in computing and computer games.

Sylvia Beyer wrote Why Are Women Underrepresented In Computer Science? Gender Differences In Stereotypes, Self-Efficacy, Values, And Interests And Predictors Of Future CS Course-Taking And Grades. The study looks at why women are underrepresented in Computer Science. Sylvia Beyer obtained data from 1,319 American, first-year college students that indicated that there exists a gender difference in computer self-efficacy, stereotypes, interests, values, interpersonal orientation, and personalities. A student having a positive experience in their first computer science was more likely to take another one. Beyer suggests that this underrepresentation is not inevitable. To make changes, we need a clear understanding of the reasons they are not as high in numbers. She suggests social psychological variables that can be observed. She also saw that having a terrific instructor influences students to continue with CS also.

In the article, Classrooms Matter: The Design Of Virtual Classrooms Influences Gender Disparities In Computer Science Classes, the author conducted three experiments examining if the design of virtual learning environments influences undergraduates’ enrollment intentions and anticipated success in introductory computer science classes.

The work was specifically done on whether the design of 3-D VLEs influence gender disparities in computer science. They found that changing the design of a virtual classroom from one that portrays current computer science stereotypes to one that does not, significantly increases women’s interest and potential success in computer science.

Men’s interest and anticipated success was not changed from environmental changes. Statistical analysis showed that the stereotypical virtual classroom brought on a lower sense of belonging for women. There was a lack of “ambient belonging” in the stereotypical room. The researchers want to study why objects stereotypically involved with computer science steer away. They argue that re-designing VLEs may help underrepresentation of women in computer science. The researchers mentioned a potential limitation of the study was that the stereotypical room was presented first to the participants in the experiment.

In Enduring Influence Of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models On Women’s Academic Aspirations, the paper examines whether small exposure to a stereotypical computer science role model has a lasting influence on women’s interest for computer science. One hundred undergraduate women, non-computer science majors met a male or female peer role model who fit computer science stereotypes, or they met a role model with no stereotypes. The interaction lasted two minutes.

Exposure to the stereotypical role model had an immediate and negative effects on women’s interest in computer science. This result was because of women’s reduced sense of belonging. Whether the role model was male or female had no effect. The researchers hypothesized that women’s interest in computer science would be compromised by exposure to a stereotypical role model. It would lead to a lower sense of belonging. They were right in their hypothesis. Non-stereotypical male role models were more effective in increasing women’s interest than female role models who fit the stereotype.

The researchers found that sharing a unique similarity or emphasizing values helps women into the field. They also found that gender of a role model does not only matter, but whether a potential role model conveys to women a sense of belonging in the field.

The article, The Stereotypical Computer Scientist: Gendered Media Representations As A Barrier To Inclusion For Women examines undergraduates’ stereotypes of people in computer science, and whether the media can change the stereotypes to have more women. Two studies were done. Women who read that computer science no longer fit the stereotypes, express more interest than those who read otherwise. A stereotype in computer science that mentioned is that computer scientists are technology-oriented, with strong interests in programming and electronics. The perception is that they are less likely to help others compared to people with different careers.

This stereotype was held by both male and female students. The stereotype may cause women to express less interest in the field than men. A second stereotype: computer scientists are so focused on technology that they are obsessed with computers and programming: to the exclusion of others. This stereotype deters more women than men. Another stereotype is that computer scientists lack interpersonal skills and are socially awkward.

The evidence suggests that male undergraduates are more likely to endorse this stereotype than females, although women may be deterred by it. The computer ‘nerd’ or ‘geek’ stereotype discourages women from pursuing computer science. The researchers also argue that these stereotypes are not compatible with characteristics women are expected and may wish to possess, like working with and helping others.

The authors in Diversity Or Difference? New Research Supports The Case For A Cultural Perspective On Women In Computing argue that looking at gender difference for participation of women in computing, doesn’t explain women’s declining interest. They focus on culture. They show the significance of cultural factors by describing a case study examining attitudes of computer science majors at Carnegie Mellon University.

They found no difference in attitude between genders. They describe culture as belonging to everyone, being part of our everyday experiences, and being “made and remade.” The authors use this term for culture defined as referring to the complex and broad set of relationships, values, attitudes, and behaviors binding a specific community ‘consciously’ and ‘unconsciously.’

The authors argue that gender is often constructed differently in different cultures, so taking a cultural approach allows us to see more clearly and convincingly that many characteristics considered natural to men and women are actually produced in specific cultures. Cultural factors like faculty approachability, environment, social fit, academic fit, and ingredients for success were observed.

They found that inclusive culture still exists, and that a women-CS “fit” has been sustained without accommodating presumed gender differences. They argue that attitudes toward CS aren’t deeply rooted, nor specific to one gender, which makes it very disjointed. They found that it’s determined by factors within culture and the environment.

Catherine Ashcraft, in Technology And Sexuality –What’s The Connection? Addressing Youth Sexualities In Efforts To Increase Girls’ Participation In Computing, Learning, Media And Technology says that a lot of programs looking at under representation of  women in technology take a narrow view of their purpose, ignoring important factors that shape identities and education/career choices. The paper focuses on the issue of sexuality. The author explains how sexuality discourses are shaping a diverse range of girls’ experiences with technology, their perception of themselves and their ultimate choices in their educational and professional life.

The author emphasizes sexuality in technology education. She says there a connection between youth sexuality and technology. Also, says that sexuality influences two barriers to girls’ and women’s participation in computing: by stereotypes and work-life conflicts in technology workplaces. Ashcraft argues that progressive sexuality education and increasing acceptance of and funding for this education will lead to increasing effectiveness of computing programs.

This article, by Roli Varma Why So Few Women Enroll In Computing? Gender

And Ethnic Differences In Students’ Perception examines reasons behind low enrollment of women in computer science and computer engineering education. It’s based on 150 in-depth interviews of female and male undergraduates in the major. The interviews included whites, African-Americans, Hispanics, Asian-Americans, and Native Americans students

The study found bias in early socialization and anxiety toward technology as being two reasons. There was significant gender and ethnic differences in student responses on why enrollment for women is so low. The students’ statements suggest that society, including family members, have higher expectation for boys than girls. Also, children are taught by teachers with a bias that girls are good in fields not technology related, why boys are.

Most of the female students interviewed said that they found anxiety in technical fields either due to lack of exposure/use of computers or because of an outcome of gendered socialization. There was significant gender and ethnic differences on students’ perception about why women’s representation is so low.

Female students point to gendered socialization and technical anxiety. White students, more so, blamed only gendered socialization. Asian Americans lean towards role played by technical anxiety. There were ethnic differences in women, but not men. Native American females feel some other reason is to blame other than gendered socialization or technical anxiety. There was also a divide between Whites and African-Americans.

Varma says that the study suggests that teachers in elementary, middle, and high school need to improve their style of teaching to not be, so stereotypical in focusing on math and science for boys. Another suggestion is that girls’ math and programming skills should be developed and/or improved by the time they reach university. Also, having classrooms in universities (Virtual or actual) that are gender neutral, or even female-friendly can help helpful. For example, not having a classroom filled with video games posters, but instead art could be considered neutral as video games are stereotypically associated with males.

The article, See Feminine Think Incompetent? The Effects Of A Feminine Outfit On The Evaluation Of Women’s Computer Competence the authors look at whether the outfit of a woman leads to a stereotype of women’s lower computer skills. The study was done in Germany, it includes 162 participants (105 women, fifty seven men). It evaluated the same women competing for an information technology-related student job. The women wore either a neutral outfit, or a feminine one, and that was the only difference.

It was found that the feminine outfit had higher ratings of femininity, but lower ratings of computer skills. Also, unfavorable attributions of success and/or failure in computer tasks. There was found to be a high attribution of success to luck and failure to lack of skills. The women wearing the feminine outfit was rated to be less intelligent, less competent, and less likeable. And, males rated themselves to have higher computer skills than females.

Ulf Mellström, in his paper The Intersection Of Gender, Race, And Cultural

Boundaries, Or Why Is Computer Science In Malaysia Dominated By Women? investigates how and why computer science is dominated by women in Malaysia. The author aims to open up more culturally situated analyses of gendering of technology or technology of gendering. He critiques analytical asymmetry in process of co-production in gender and technology studies. He critiques the western bias, advocating more context sensitivity and focus on cultural embeddedness of gender and technology relations.

Mellström suggests that more attention should be paid to spatial practices and body politics in regard to race, class, and gender. He also opposes the western positional notions of gender configuration that opens up for more fluid constructions of gender identity. The study wants to look at relational and positional definitions of femininity and masculinity. He says there is a western bias of gender and technology studies, and argues for cross-cultural work and intersectional understandings.

The author did a 150 student questionnaire survey. It included 111 women, and thirty nine men. The women comprised of sixty eight Malays, thirty eight Chinese, and five Indians. For the men, there were twenty Malays, seventeen Chinese, and two Indians. The questionnaire focused on gender, ethnicity, family structure, educational choice, and career plans. The author also noticed that Malay women are studying engineering, science, and management fields in large numbers. While, the men are studying for government positions and studying in fields like Bahasa Malaysia, Islamic Studies, and Social Sciences.

In the article, Gender Gap in Computer Science Does Not Exist in One Former Soviet Republic: Results of a Study,” the authors look at Armenia. They says countries of the former Soviet Union are different from America’s in society, culture, and educational system. This could be a large reason why there is a big amount of women in computer science in Armenia. Throughout all of the 1980’s and 1990’s in Armenia, the percentage of women in computer science never fell below 75%, even though Armenia traditionally is a male-dominating culture.

The study looks to compare and contrast what attracts or doesn’t attract women to computer science in America or former Soviet Union countries. There were three different surveys done with 23 questions for three different groups of people. it included people majoring in computer science, non-computer science majors, and graduate professionals in other fields.

The survey was 538 individuals (240 males and 226 females). 85 people were also interviewed. Looking at Armenia, 31% of women consider computer science recently. The author says that factors leading to the under-representation of women in computing is because CS is male dominated, girls get intimidated, and feel isolated. Further, there aren’t role models for young women, and women don’t get the same respect as men, not the same opportunity, or success.

In Armenia, surveys show said that men are only bothered if there is a low number of women, not men. There are not role models in Armenia also. Unequal treatment for women happens in computer science, and others fields. Though, when both young Armenian men and women choose the CS major, they have the same mindset (motivation, goals, and influences). Young people are very mature in planning their futures. In Armenia, computer science is more considered math than engineering. Male dominating fields aren’t intimidating to women, and not having role models is not a concern.



In this proposal the researcher aimed to see why there is such an under representation of women in studying computer science in the United States. The researcher wanted to see various techniques and findings researchers have and/or suggest increase women in computer science. The researcher also wanted to look outside of America and see how the ratio of men to women in computer science is. From the research done, the researcher saw that factors to increase the number of women in computer science include: having a great instructor/professor, peer support, expectation for success, limiting stereotypes, sharing a unique similarity and emphasizing values for role models, progressive sexual education, encouragement by teachers in elementary/middle/high school, improved style of teaching to not be stereotypical, girls’ math and programming skills developed and/or improved by university, and having user friendly female classrooms.

Understanding why there is such an under-representation can come from having a bad experience in your first computer science class, stereotypes, stereotypical role models (Which reduces a sense of belonging), cultural factors, environmental factors, early bias in socialization, anxiety toward technology, family influence, grade school teachers influence, and lack of exposure/ use of computers.

The researcher looked at three different countries: Germany, Armenia, and Malaysia. Germany and Armenia are both western countries, but produced different results. In Germany, a study was done where it was found that feminine outfits worn by females, opposed to neutral ones, led to stereotypes of women’s computer skills. In Armenia, a former Soviet Union country, is said to be different from America is society, culture, and educational system. There are a lot more women in computer science, compared to the States. In this article it was argued that there is an under-representation of women in computer science in America was it is male dominated, intimidating to women, women don’t get the same respect, opportunity, or success as man; and there are few role models for women.

Seeing these two countries, it would be argued that countries in the west, generally have under representation of women in computer science. A country like Armenia being different because the Soviet Union’s culture was different, and isolated from the rest of Europe. The argument could go more so to Western Europe. Additional research would have to be done to make conclusive findings. A last country, Malaysia, is not North America or Europe, so it was intriguing to see the vast difference there. Malay women study in technology in large numbers, while the men do not. The article argued there is a western bias of gender and technology studies, and called for cross-cultural work and intersectional understanding. Seeing these results, you can see that countries in Asia, possibly others, don’t have this under representation. There are other countries that have high number of women in technology like India or China, and more research would have to be done to compare and contrast western to non-western countries.























Works Cited

Ashcraft, Catherine (2015) Technology and sexuality –

what’s the connection? Addressing youth sexualities in efforts to increase girls’
participation in computing, Learning, Media and Technology, 40:4, 437-457

Beyer, Sylvia (2014) Why are women underrepresented in Computer

Science? Gender differences in stereotypes, self-efficacy, values, and interests and predictors
of future CS course-taking and grades, Computer Science Education, 24:2-3, 153-192, DOI:

Cheryan, Sapna, Andrew N. Meltzoff, and Saenam Kim. “Classrooms

Matter: The Design of Virtual Classrooms Influences Gender Disparities in Computer Science Classes.” Computers & Education 57 (2011): 1825-835. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

Cheryan, Sapna, Benjamin J. Drury, and Marissa Vichayapai.

“Enduring Influence of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models on Women’s Academic Aspirations.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 37.I (2012): 72-79. Sage Publications. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

Cheryan, Sapna, Victoria C. C. Plaut, Caitlin Handron, and Lauren Hudson. “The

Stereotypical Computer Scientist: Gendered Media Representations as a Barrier to Inclusion for Women.” Springer Science Business Media New York (2013): 58-71. Web. Feb.-Mar. 2016

Denner, Jill, Linda Werner, Lisa O’Connor, and Jill Glassman. “Community College Men and

Women: A Test of Three Widely Held Beliefs About Who Pursues Computer Science.”Community College Review 42.4 (2014): 342-62. Sage Publishing. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.


Fleischmann, Alexandra, Monika Sieverding, Ulrike Hespenheide,

Miriam Weib, and Sabine Koch. “See Feminine Think Incompetent? The Effects of a Feminine Outfit on the Evaluation of Women’s Computer Competence.” Computers & Education 95 (2016): 63-74. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

Frieze, Carol, Jeria L. Quesenberry, Elizabeth Kemp, and Anthony Velázquez. “Diversity or

Difference? New Research Supports the Case for a Cultural Perspective on Women in Computing.” Journal of Science Education and Technology 21.4 (2012): 423-39. Springer. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.

Gharibyan, Hasmik, and Stephan Gunsaulus. “Gender Gap in Computer Science Does

Not Exist in One Former Soviet Republic: Results of a Study.” ACM 38.3 (2006): 222-26. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.


Mellström, Ulf. “The Intersection of Gender, Race, and Cultural

Boundaries, or Why Is Computer Science in Malaysia Dominated by Women?” Social Studies of Science 39.6 (2009): 885-907. Sage Publications, Ltd. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.

Varma, Roli (2010) Why so few women enroll in computing? Gender

and ethnic differences in students’ perception, Computer Science Education, 20:4, 301-316


These instructions will help to prepare and send a package. To efficiently use these instructions, it would be best to have all the materials ready and to follow the instructions carefully. Sometimes when people send out packages, they get lost, sent to the wrong address, the contents inside get damaged, or the package gets stolen. These instructions will put one in the best position for any sort of shortcoming to not occur. These instructions are for anyone, of any age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, creed, nationality, etc. Anyone can send out a package, even children.

What you’ll need:

-Your content that you want to be mailed.

-A package; such as, a box that fits the content that will be mailed out. It can range from very small, to a very large, over-sized package.

-Scotch tape, to seal the package once the content is inside.

-Labels, to label the return address and the address in which the package is being sent.

-Means of transportation, (If the location to send the package is not within walking distance) to reach a USPS, UPS, or FedEx site to send out the package. If the package is small enough, it can be put in the mailbox.

-Postage stamp, if the package is small and being sent in the mailbox. Otherwise, it would be done by the worker at the store.

-Money, to pay for the shipping and handling of the package. This can range in price, depending on how fast one would want the package to be sent to the location. The price could even be zero if shipping and handling, labels, and stamps are taken care of by the receiver of the package.

-Material, to stuff the package if it isn’t fully sealed in the package on its own.

-Means of writing, to write out the address and name on the label. Alternatively have it printed out, so an available computer could work also.

-Refer to the carrier for specific guidelines for packing, if applicable.



  1. Obtain all of your materials that you will need.
  2. Place the content that you want to send, in a packaging box.


  1. If you feel the content is very delicate and fragile and isn’t properly set, then put in stuffing, such as, Styrofoam or bubble wrap. Surround the content with the bubble wrap, or if you have Styrofoam, fill it until the box is full.
  2. Once the package is filled and set, close it up and tape it together. Tape the top and bottom multiple times, up to three times would be recommended.
  3. Next, find the labels, and fill it out. Caution: make sure you double check and triple check the address that you are sending to and your own return address. Make sure your name and the receiver’s name is spelled correctly. Follow official instructions on writing addresses by checking the USPS website (Information; such as, abbreviations). Make sure your handwriting is clear, and legible.
  4. Place the label on your box, and tape it on. Again, make sure enough tape is put on it, so it won’t slip off or get ripped off. It would be preferred to put tape on the front of the label, on all corners, or even all of the sides.


  1. Another step that can be taken is to put a “fragile: handle with care” label on it. This can be printed out online using paper, or just written on the actual box.
  2. Now, your package is ready to be sent. Place any required stamps on it, and put in the mailbox. If you want it to be sent early, place it before the mailman comes that day, or drive to a USPS center.


  1. If you are sending via FedEx or UPS, go to the location. Again, make sure you go early in the day or at least within office and/or business hours to maximize time.
  2. If you were already provided with pre-paid labels, then you won’t have to pay, rather, just go to the store and make sure it is handed to a person working there. If the package contains fragile content, make sure you let the worker know.
  3. If you need to pay for shipping and handling, make sure you have figure out how much the price will be by asking the worker. You should know an estimated time that the package will be sent.
  4. Once you have paid, you can possibly keep up with the package on how it is being shipped. Ask the worker if this option is available. This could be checked on the USPS website for example, if you are shipping through them. Otherwise, it should be available for the receiver, and communication can be done through him or her.


-Make sure you are careful with your package, especially if it is heavy. Don’t over-estimate your strength. If the package is large, ask someone for help to carry it if you feel you could be injured.

-If you have a large box package, make sure you use your knees to pick it up, and not your back. Meaning, get as low as possible so the bulk of the strength comes from the knees, instead of just picking it up, which results in the strength coming from your back.

-If you see that the packing material is “hazardous,” use all caution, as it can be harmful otherwise.

Memos and Letter

To: Connie Douglas

From: Jawad Ahmed

Subject: CEO Problem Memo

Date: 3 May 2016

I am a member of the database team. After our new approved database systems got the green light, we found out that it was not compatible with the software of the development team. We then reached out to the manager and team lead, the issue was resolved

I met with the team lead and his team. We were able to quickly discover that for the database system to become compatible, the software just needed to be updated. The new database system is newer in technology, while the software has not been updated recently because of budget cuts in the department. We were able to approve costs for the software, and made a joint effort from my database team to make sure it is now compatible. A lot of the work was easily transferrable since it was the same software. There were some minor tweaks. We also tested to make sure they will work together.

The issue was resolved fairly quickly, as it was almost a routine change since software and databases are always being updated. In the future, we could implement a liaison correspondent that can relay the change, because it will be recurring. That way both teams won’t have to get together, possibly just team leads.


To: Connie Douglas

From: Jawad Ahmed

Subject: Problem Memo

Date: 3 May, 2016

I am a database analyst within the database team. I wanted to address that the software that is being used within your department is not compatible with the database system that my peers and I are currently working to build. The software being that is being used is SQL Server Express. It is not compatible with the SQL database system.

This database system has just been approved by our director, so we should make the necessary adjustments to resolve this issue. Without the right compatibility within the database system, it cannot be implemented. We do not routinely make these changes relating to databases but, this is now the most efficient one. Relay this message to your peers so we all can come to a concessive in which software to use. The adjustment shouldn’t be too difficult to resolve, it could possibly just require the software to be upgraded. I’m assuming this could be the best option. The department hasn’t updated the software for budget reasons.

The SQL Server Express is running an older version: the 2015 version. Normally, a year would not make a difference, but, the new update on the 2016 version has made a lot of significant changes. My suggestion would be to upgrade to the 2016 version of the SQL Server Express. Then, the SQL database system will be compatible. This will allow the project managers to brainstorm new projects and the managers to assign duties. Currently, the work on this system has been put on a temporary halt.

Without this change, I will not be able to communicate and make changes coming from the front-end development team and the back-end development team. Reach out to me when you have spoken to your team.


123 Main Street

Charlotte, NC 28213

Jawad Ahmed, Database Analyst, Microsoft

9527-L University Terrace Dr

Charlotte, NC 28262

2 February, 2016

Dear Mr. Ahmed:

I am reaching out to you because I have some issues that came up with the database that I’m using in Microsoft SQL. I recently took up database programming to find an easier way to manage all of my case files. I used Microsoft Excel and Access before, but found the software was not complex enough for the information I have. With Excel there was not enough storage space nor enough security features. And with Access I found enough storage, but not enough security. I wanted more security and more options, so my research lead to Microsoft SQL.

After learning the basics of SQL, I began to use it. I have vast amounts of information so I needed a very efficient way of storing it. The security features are impressive. After implementing many of my case files with added security, I found that there was not enough space to have them efficiently sorted. It was possible to store all of the cases, unlike Excel, but I could not sort them out. I feel that the issue might be that I need to use a different version of Microsoft SQL. I have seen the different features in various software, but I do not want to make any purchases until I have gotten some clarity. I will be waiting for your response.


Bill Adams


9527-L University Terrace Dr

Charlotte, NC 28262

Bill Adams, Lawyer

123 Main Street

Charlotte, NC 28213

March 3, 2016

Dear Mr. Adams:

Thank you for reaching out to me. You are right in thinking a different version of Microsoft SQL must be used. A premium version of Microsoft SQL should suffice. The version you are currently using is not meant to have organization in very large databases. Its role is more to store the data. With a premium version, you will be able to store not only as much data for your clients as you want, but it will also be properly organized into year, type of case, or whatever you meets your needs.

The premium version of the Microsoft SQL does require a yearly fee, but the features are much more complex. All your issues in data would be resolved using this version. I can personally help you in the process of buying the premium version, downloading and implementing this version.

A lot of our clients use this version, such as small businesses, individuals, nonprofits, etc. Just recently we ran into a nonprofit client that decided to switch over to this version. They used large amounts of data for their research and needed a proper way organize it, while having optimum security. Please reach out to me if you need further assistance.


Jawad Ahmed

Personal Memo

To: Connie Douglas

From: Jawad Ahmed

Subject: My Personal Memo

Date: May 3, 2016

Course name/section: ENGL-2116-090

Assignment: Personal Memo

My name is Jawad, I was born in Gaithersburg, Maryland. I am the oldest of three. I have two younger brothers. My major is Computer Science. I would like to have a career in information technology (IT). My goals are to become successful and make enough money to provide for myself and my future family. Organizations I have been involved with include: Residence Hall Council, Muslim Students Association, College Democrats, Charlotte Green Initiative, the International Student/Scholar Office, amongst others.

My philosophy in life is to work hard, pursue my dreams, and enjoy life because it is short. My words of wisdom would be to travel the world, spend time with your family, and value all your friendships. I hope to have a satisfying career in IT in ten years, with (more than likely) a wife and children. I want to have a job after I graduate (two years), then after another two years or so, I would like to have a Masters. Then, by ten years I would like to have a stable salary with a family. My parents are very memorable in my life because they are my biggest supporters in whatever I am pursuing.

One artifact/object that represents me is a band I wear “love for all, hatred for none.” I believe that we should be good to people, forgive and forget, and not spend time hating others. The job I want is in IT. There are different fields I am interested in, so I am still figuring out which specific one to pursue. The job could be in databases, cloud, virtualization, web development, software, etc. My dream job would be working in a field that I have decided I want to pursue and I thoroughly enjoy.

Concerns I have about the future of our society is how certain technology has taken over people’s lives and jobs. Smart phones are a perfect example of this: it completely consumes people’s daily lives (Especially the younger generations). Instead of valuing face-to-face interactions with friends, family, etc. they would rather be on their phone. Another concern I have about the future of our society is artificial intelligence being more prevalent. In the not too long future, there could be a lot of human positions that are taken away, even higher-up ones that are replaced by a robot. Questions I have about my chosen profession could include day-to-day work, pay, how quickly people move up in the ranks in positions. Knowing the answers to these questions could help determine what specific career field and position I could ultimately have.

Resume/Letter of Application

9547-L University Terrace Dr

Charlotte, NC 28262

April 26, 2016

Erin Greenlee, Human Resources

710 Northeast Drive Suite 10

Davidson, NC 28036


Dear Ms. Greenlee:

I am applying for the position of Data Analytics Summer Intern that I found through the Hire-A-Niner website. I am passionate about environmental issues; such as, water and energy use. I admire the company’s commitment to having a more “greener tomorrow.” I feel I can be a valuable asset because of my past, technological experiences and knowledge.

I’ve managed datasets as a research associate at Dallas Afterschool and as a research and data intern at Children At Risk. At DA, I collected, entered, and managed raw data using advanced features of Microsoft Excel. I also prepped data for analysis. At C@R, I organized data that was incorporated into large school data files, cleaned data for the second edition of the Texas School Guide, utilized excel to review school level data, and analyzed data.

I extensively used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPPS) for my Political Science Methods, doing research and analysis including regression analysis. I am a clear, logical thinker. I have strong analytical and communication skills. I am highly organized and an excellent problem solver. I have experience working with clients and working as a team. It is the combination of all this that makes me the best candidate for your data analytics intern position.

I look forward to the possibility of talking with you. I will send a follow-up e-mail after a week. If any other documents are needed, I can be reached through my e-mail, phone, or by mail. All of which are provided on my resume. Thank you for your consideration.


Jawad Ahmed



S. Jawad Ahmed•      

9547-L University Terrace Dr Charlotte, NC 28262                     (336) 471-4627


University of North Carolina at Charlotte – Charlotte, North Carolina

Bachelor of Science in Computer Science

Expected graduation: December 2017


University of North Carolina at Charlotte – Charlotte, North Carolina                                               May 2013

Bachelor of Arts in Political Science

Minors: Computer Science and Software and Information Systems


  • Managed data sets at Dallas Afterschool and Children At Risk.
  • Marketing clients’ skills and providing them service at Paragon Group.
  • Strong analytical and communication

Work Experience

Dallas Afterschool – Dallas, Texas                                                                         August 2015-October 2015

Research Associate

  • Collected, entered, and managed raw data using advanced features of Excel.
  • Prepped data for analysis that impacted over 9,000 K-12 students in the Dallas, Texas area.
  • Administered surveys and facilitated student social-emotional assessments with afterschool program staff.
  • Researching and reviewing literature on afterschool programs in Dallas area.


Children At Risk – Dallas, Texas                                                                                        May 2014-July 2014

Research and Data Intern

  • Clean data necessary for the Texas School Guide, including school names, grade levels, addresses, phone numbers, etc.
  • Researched policies, procedures, and services for Dallas Independent and Fort Worth Independent School Districts and area charter schools, to enhance the Parent Action Guides included in the Texas School Guide.
  • Contributed to the development of the second edition of Texas School Guide by utilizing Microsoft Excel and reviewing school level data.


Paragon Group – Plano, Texas                                                                                         April 2014-July 2015

Client Services Coordinator

  • Demonstrating time management by researching job leads and networking contacts for clients within a deadline.
  • E-mailing/calling various company HR managers/recruiters to set up interviews for clients.
  • Managing the company website and providing clients with open job postings.
  • Developing resume website pages for clients.
  • Editing client videos used for their professional resume websites.

Computer Skills

Programming Languages: C++, Java, and SQL.

Markup Languages: HTML/HTML5, XHTML, and CSS/CSS3.

Software/Software Packages: Oracle, Eclipse, jQuery, SPSS, Adobe Dreamweaver, and PowerDirector.

CMS and Middlewares: WordPress, JavaScript, and JSP.

Design: UML, Algorithms, Databases, and MVC.